Adobo: A traditional Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin American dish that is made from meat, poultry, or seafood, marinated in vinegar, soy sauce, garlic, and spices. It is then slow-cooked to create a rich and flavorful dish.
Agar-agar: A type of gelatin made from red algae and used as a vegetarian alternative to traditional gelatin. It is often used as a thickener in jellies, puddings, and other desserts. Agar is also commonly used in Petri dishes.
Aioli: A type of garlic-flavored mayonnaise that originated in the Mediterranean. It is typically made by mixing garlic, oil, lemon juice, and egg yolks, creating a rich and creamy sauce that is commonly used as a dip, spread, or sauce.
Al Dente: A term used in cooking to describe pasta or other foods that are cooked so they are firm but not mushy. This term translates to the tooth.
Almondine: A dish that is topped with a mixture of breadcrumbs, butter, and almonds, which is then baked or broiled until golden brown. This dish is commonly used to top fish, poultry, and vegetables.
Amuse-bouche: A small, bite-sized appetizer or snack that is served before a meal. It is usually served in a single spoon or on a small piece of bread and is meant to tantalize the palate and whet the appetite for the main course.
Andouillette: A type of sausage that is made from pork or veal intestines, and is typically seasoned with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. It is a specialty dish in many regions of France.
Apple Pie: A classic dessert that is made by baking apples, sugar, and spices inside a pastry crust. It is a staple dish in many countries and is often served with whipped cream or vanilla ice cream.
Arancini: Fried rice balls that are typically filled with cheese, meat, or vegetables. They are a popular snack or appetizer in Italian cuisine.
Aromatics: A term used to describe ingredients such as onion, garlic, celery, and carrots, which are commonly used in cooking to add flavor and depth to dishes. They are often sautéed in oil or butter to release their fragrant aromas before other ingredients are added.
Au gratin: A French culinary term used to describe dishes that are topped with a mixture of breadcrumbs and grated cheese, then baked or broiled until golden brown.
Avocado: Avocado is a fruit that is oval and has a soft, creamy texture and rich, nutty flavor. It is commonly used in a variety of dishes, including salads, sandwiches, and dips, and is a good source of healthy monounsaturated fats.
Baba Ganoush: A Middle Eastern dip or spread made from roasted eggplant that is mashed and combined with tahini (sesame paste), olive oil, lemon juice, and spices.
Bagel: Bagel is a type of bread that is made by boiling dough made of wheat flour and yeast, and then baking it in an oven. Bagels are typically round with a hole in the center and have a chewy texture.
Baguette: Baguette is a long, thin loaf of French bread that is made from wheat flour, yeast, water, and salt. It is characterized by its crisp crust and light, airy texture.
Bake: Bake is a cooking method in which food is placed in an oven and surrounded by dry heat. Baking is used to cook a variety of dishes, including cakes, bread, pastries, and casseroles.
Baked Alaska is a dessert consisting of ice cream that is surrounded by a layer of sponge cake and then coated with meringue and baked until the meringue is golden brown.
Baked Beans: Baked Beans are a type of bean dish that is slow-cooked with a sauce made from molasses, brown sugar, and spices. They are typically served as a side dish or as part of a larger meal.
Barbecue: Barbecue is a cooking method that involves slow-cooking food, often meats, over low heat using wood or charcoal to infuse it with a smoky flavor. Regional variations in sauces, rubs, and techniques make barbecue a diverse and beloved culinary tradition worldwide.
Barbecue Ribs are meaty pork ribs that are slow-cooked or grilled over indirect heat and seasoned with a variety of spices, herbs, and sauces. They are a popular dish in many countries around the world.
Basil: Basil is an herb that is commonly used in cooking and is a key ingredient in many Mediterranean and Southeast Asian dishes. It has a sweet, pungent aroma and flavor that complements a variety of foods, including sauces, soups, and salads.
Baste: Basting is a cooking technique in which a liquid, such as melted butter, is brushed or spooned over meat, poultry, or other food during cooking to add moisture and flavor and prevent it from drying out.
Bay Leaves: Bay leaves are aromatic dried leaves from the bay laurel tree. They are used as a flavoring in cooking and are often added to soups, stews, sauces, and braises to add a subtle, woodsy flavor.
Béarnaise: Béarnaise is a classic French sauce made from a reduction of white wine, shallots, tarragon, and vinegar, combined with butter and egg yolks. It is typically served with steak or vegetables.
Béchamel (also spelled Bechamel) is a white sauce that is made from a roux (a mixture of butter and flour) and milk. It is one of the mother sauces in classic French cuisine and is used as a base for many other sauces and dishes, such as lasagna and macaroni and cheese.
Beef Brisket: Beef Brisket is a cut of meat from the lower chest of a cow that is often slow-cooked or braised. It is known for its rich, flavorful meat and is often used in dishes like corned beef, pastrami, and barbecue.
Beef Wellington: Beef Wellington is a dish made from a filet of beef that is coated with a mixture of mushroom duxelles, pâté, and mustard, and then wrapped in puff pastry and baked. It is named after the Duke of Wellington and is often served as a special occasion or holiday dish.
Biryani: Biryani is a South Asian dish made from seasoned rice and meat, often chicken or lamb, that is cooked together with spices, herbs, and other ingredients. It is a popular dish in India, Pakistan, and other countries in the region.
Biscotti: Biscotti are crisp, twice-baked Italian cookies that are typically made with almonds, anise, or other flavorings. They are often enjoyed with coffee or as a snack.
Biscuits: Biscuits are a type of quick bread made from a mixture of flour, baking powder, fat, and liquid that is baked until golden brown. In the United States, biscuits are often served with breakfast foods such as gravy or jam.
Biscuits and Gravy is a classic Southern American breakfast dish made from biscuits (as described above) that are split in half and served with a creamy sausage gravy.
Blanch is a cooking technique in which food, typically vegetables, is briefly boiled in water and then immediately removed and plunged into ice water to stop the cooking process. This helps to preserve the color and texture of the food.
Blanched is an adjective used to describe food that has been subjected to the blanching technique.
Blanquette de Veau: Blanquette de Veau is a classic French dish made from veal (or sometimes chicken) that is simmered in a creamy sauce made from a white sauce (béchamel) and ingredients such as mushrooms, onions, and carrots. The veal is typically cut into small pieces and served over rice or egg noodles.
Blender: A blender is a kitchen appliance that is used to blend, puree, or emulsify foods. It has a cylindrical container with a blade at the bottom that rotates at high speed, chopping and mixing the ingredients.
Blinis: Blinis are small, thin pancakes that are traditionally made with a yeast-based batter and served with sour cream and caviar, although they can also be filled with other ingredients such as smoked salmon or cheese.
Blintz is a type of thin pancake that is typically filled with a sweet or savory filling, such as cheese, fruit, or meat, and then rolled up and baked or fried. They are a traditional dish in Jewish cuisine.
BLT Sandwich: BLT stands for bacon, lettuce, and tomato and refers to a type of sandwich that consists of these ingredients served on bread, often with mayonnaise.
Boil is a cooking method in which food is cooked in boiling water or another liquid. The heat causes the liquid to reach its boiling point and cook the food evenly and quickly.
Borscht is a soup that is popular in Eastern European cuisine, especially in Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. It is typically made with beets, cabbage, potatoes, and other vegetables and is often served hot with sour cream.
Bouchee a la reine is a French dish made from vol-au-vent cups filled with a mixture of chicken or fish, vegetables, and a creamy sauce. It is often served as a first course or light meal.
Bouillabaisse is a traditional fish stew from the coastal region of Provence in France. It is made from a mixture of fish and shellfish, such as cod, monkfish, and mussels, simmered in a flavorful broth with vegetables, herbs, and white wine.
Bouillon is a type of clear broth made by simmering meat, vegetables, and seasonings in water. It is used as a base for soups and stews and can also be consumed as a light broth.
Boulettes De Veau à La Lyonnaise is a French dish made from veal meatballs that are simmered in a white wine sauce with onions, bacon, and mushrooms.
Boulettes de Liande is a traditional dish from the region of Lyon in France, made from small meatballs made from a mixture of beef, pork, and liver. They are simmered in a flavorful broth and served with crusty bread.
Boursin is a brand of flavored soft cheese that is made from a mixture of cream and herbs, such as garlic and parsley. It is often served as a spread or appetizer.
Braciole is a type of Italian dish made from thin slices of beef or pork that are stuffed with breadcrumbs, cheese, and herbs, then rolled up and braised or baked. It is a traditional dish in Southern Italian cuisine.
Braise is a cooking method in which food is first seared at a high temperature, then cooked slowly in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid, such as broth or wine, for a long time. This method is often used for tough cuts of meat that benefit from the slow cooking process, such as beef brisket or short ribs.
Braised refers to food that has been cooked using the braising method.
Bratwurst is a type of German sausage that is typically made from a mixture of pork and veal and flavored with spices such as nutmeg, coriander, and caraway. It is often grilled or boiled and served with sauerkraut and mustard.
Brie is a type of soft cheese that is made from cow’s milk. It has a creamy, rich flavor and a soft, edible rind. Brie is often served as an appetizer, melted on bread or crackers, or paired with fruit and wine.
Brine is a solution of salt, sugar, and seasonings that are used to preserve or add flavor to food, particularly meats, and poultry. The food is immersed in the brine for a while, allowing the flavors to penetrate and helping to keep the meat tender and moist during cooking.
Brioche is a type of rich, egg-based bread that is made with butter and yeast. It has a slightly sweet flavor and a soft, tender texture, and is often used to make sweet or savory pastries and sandwiches.
Broil is a cooking method in which food is placed close to a heat source, such as a broiler or grill, and cooked by direct radiant heat. This method is used to cook quickly and add a crisp exterior, such as when broiling steaks or vegetables.
Broth is a liquid that is made by simmering bones, vegetables, and seasonings in water. It is used as a base for soups, stews, and sauces, and can also be consumed on its own as a flavorful liquid.
Brown is a cooking technique in which food is seared at a high temperature until the exterior is browned and caramelized. This adds flavor and texture to the food and helps to lock in moisture.
Brown Rice is a type of rice that still has its bran layer intact, unlike white rice, which has had the bran layer removed. Brown rice has a nutty flavor and chewy texture and is a good source of fiber and nutrients.
Buffalo Burger is a type of burger made from ground buffalo meat, which is leaner and has a more robust flavor than beef.
Buffalo Wings are a popular American appetizer made from chicken wings that are deep-fried and coated in a spicy sauce, typically made from hot sauce, vinegar, and butter.
Butter: Butter is a dairy product made from churning cream until it becomes solid. It is used as a spread, a cooking fat, and a key ingredient in many baked goods, sauces, and other dishes.
Butternut refers to a type of winter squash that has a smooth, tan exterior and bright orange flesh. It has a sweet, nutty flavor and is often used in soups, stews, and pureed dishes.
Caesar Salad: Caesar Salad is a popular salad dish that is typically made from Romaine lettuce, croutons, Parmesan cheese, and a dressing made from anchovies, garlic, lemon juice, and a variety of seasonings.
Caesar Wrap: Caesar Wrap is a sandwich or wrap that is filled with the ingredients of a Caesar salad, typically including lettuce, chicken, croutons, and Caesar dressing, all wrapped up in a soft tortilla.
Calamari is a type of seafood that is made from squid. It is often fried or grilled and served as an appetizer or main dish, sometimes in rings or as a stuffed pasta.
Camembert is a type of soft cheese that is made from cow’s milk. It has a rich, creamy flavor and a soft, edible rind. Camembert is often served as an appetizer or melted in dishes such as fondue.
Canard à l’orange is a French dish made from a duck that is roasted and then glazed with a sauce made from orange juice, sugar, and other seasonings.
Canard à la presse is a French dish made from a duck that is roasted and then pressed to extract the excess fat. The resulting sauce is made from the duck’s juices, red wine, and seasonings.
Canard Laqué is a French dish made from a duck that is slowly cooked and then brushed with a mixture of sugar and soy sauce to create a caramelized, lacquered exterior.
Canned: Canned refers to food that has been processed and packaged in a can, preserving it for long-term storage.
Cannoli is an Italian pastry that is made from a tube-shaped shell of fried dough that is filled with a sweet, creamy filling, often made from ricotta cheese and flavored with sugar, chocolate, and spices.
Canola oil is a type of vegetable oil that is made from the seeds of the canola plant. It has a neutral flavor and a high smoke point, making it a popular choice for frying and baking.
Caramel refers to a sweet, golden-brown substance that is made by heating sugar until it melts and begins to brown. Caramel can be used as a topping, a flavoring, or an ingredient in a variety of sweet and savory dishes.
Caramel Apples: Caramel apples are a classic dessert that consists of an apple coated in melted caramel, which is then allowed to cool and harden. They are often served on a stick as a treat.
Caramelize: Caramelization is a cooking process in which sugar is heated to its melting point, resulting in a caramel-colored syrup with a rich, sweet flavor. This process is often used to add flavor and texture to sauces, desserts, and other foods.
Carpaccio: Carpaccio is a dish of raw, thinly sliced meat or fish that is typically served as an appetizer. The most common type of carpaccio is made with raw beef, but it can also be made with other meats or seafood.
Carrot Cake: Carrot cake is a type of cake that is made with grated carrots and spices. It is typically a moist cake that is often topped with cream cheese frosting.
Carrots: Carrots are a type of root vegetable that is widely consumed for their sweet, crunchy taste and their high nutritional value. They are rich in vitamins and minerals, especially Vitamin A, and are often eaten raw, cooked, or in salads.
Carve: To carve means to cut or shape a piece of food, usually meat, into smaller pieces or into a desired shape. This can be done using a knife or other cutting tools.
Casserole: A casserole is a type of dish that is typically made by combining various ingredients, such as meat, vegetables, and/or pasta, and then baking them in a single, large dish. Casseroles are often served as a main dish or as a side dish.
Cassoulet: Cassoulet is a traditional French dish that is made with white beans and various types of meat, such as duck, pork, and sausage. The ingredients are slow-cooked together to create a hearty and flavorful stew.
Celery: Celery is a type of vegetable that is known for its crisp, crunchy stalks and its fresh, slightly bitter taste. It is often used as a base for salads, stews, soups, and other dishes, and is also a popular snack food.
Ceviche: Ceviche is a popular South American dish that consists of raw fish or seafood that has been marinated in lemon or lime juice. The acid in the citrus juice cooks the fish, and it is typically served with spices and other ingredients, such as onions, peppers, and cilantro.
Chantilly: Chantilly is a type of whipped cream that is flavored with vanilla and sugar. It is often used as a topping for desserts, such as cakes and fruit, or as a filling for pastries.
Char: Char is a type of fish that is typically found in freshwater or saltwater environments. It is known for its firm, flavorful flesh and is often served grilled, smoked, or baked.
Chateaubriand: Chateaubriand is a type of beef cut that comes from the center of the tenderloin. It is a large, tender cut of meat that is often grilled or roasted and served as a main course.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape: Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a type of red wine that is produced in the Châteauneuf-du-Pape region of France. It is made from a blend of grape varieties, including Grenache, Syrah, and Mourvèdre, and is known for its full-bodied, complex flavor profile.
Cheddar: Cheddar is a type of cheese that is made from cow’s milk and is known for its sharp, tangy flavor. It is one of the most widely produced and consumed cheeses in the world and is commonly used in sandwiches, salads, and cooked dishes.
Cheeseburger: A cheeseburger is a type of sandwich (hamburger) that consists of a beef patty, cheese, and various toppings, such as lettuce, tomato, and condiments, served on a bun. It is a popular fast food item that can also be made at home.
Cheesecloth: Cheesecloth is a type of lightweight, breathable cloth that is often used in cooking to strain liquids or to wrap and preserve food. It is made from cotton and has a loose, open weave that allows liquids to pass through while retaining solid particles.
Chicken: Chicken is a domesticated bird that is commonly raised for its meat and eggs. It is one of the most widely consumed types of poultry in the world and is used in a variety of dishes such as roasted chicken, fried chicken, chicken soup, and chicken stir-fry.
Chicken and Waffles: Chicken and waffles is a classic American dish that consists of fried chicken served on top of a waffle. It is often served with syrup, butter, and other toppings, and is a popular brunch or breakfast food.
Chicken Fingers: Chicken fingers are thin strips of boneless chicken that are typically coated in breadcrumbs or flour and fried until crispy and golden. They are often served as a snack or as part of a main dish and can be enjoyed on their own or with dipping sauces.
Chicken Parmesan: Chicken Parmesan is a popular Italian-American dish that consists of breaded and fried chicken cutlets that are topped with marinara sauce and melted mozzarella cheese. It is typically served with pasta or garlic bread.
Chiffonade: Chiffonade is a culinary term that refers to a method of cutting herbs or greens into thin ribbons. To make a chiffonade, the leaves are stacked, rolled tightly, and then sliced into thin ribbons.
Chili Con Carne: Chili Con Carne is a type of spicy stew that is made with ground beef, tomatoes, beans, and a mixture of chili peppers and spices. It is typically served with rice, cornbread, or crackers, and can be topped with shredded cheese, sour cream, and other ingredients.
Chill: To chill in cooking terms refers to the process of cooling a dish in the refrigerator, usually to allow flavors to meld and to firm up a mixture.
Chive: A chive is a type of herb that is part of the onion family. It has a mild flavor and a delicate, grass-like appearance, and is commonly used to add flavor to soups, sauces, eggs, and other dishes.
Chop: To chop in cooking terms refers to the process of cutting food into small pieces, usually with a knife or food processor. The size of the chop can vary, depending on the desired consistency and recipe.
Choux: Choux is a type of dough that is used to make light, puffy pastries, such as éclairs and cream puffs. It is made by cooking flour, butter, and water together, and then beating in eggs to form a light and airy dough.
Chowder: Chowder is a type of soup or stew that is typically made with a creamy or brothy base and a mixture of seafood, potatoes, and other ingredients. It is often seasoned with herbs and spices and is traditionally served with crackers or crusty bread.
Churros: Churros are a type of Spanish fried pastry that is made from a dough that is similar to that used for doughnuts. They are typically shaped into long, thin rods and fried until crispy and golden, and are often served with a dipping sauce, such as hot chocolate or caramel.
Chutney: Chutney is a type of condiment that is commonly used in Indian and South Asian cuisine. It is made from a mixture of fruits, spices, sugar, and vinegar, and can be either sweet or savory in flavor. Chutneys are often used as a dip or a topping for curries, samosas, and other dishes.
Cilantro: Cilantro, also known as coriander, is a type of herb that is commonly used in Mexican, South Asian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. It has a bright, citrusy flavor and is often used to add a fresh, herbaceous note to salsa, guacamole, curries, and other dishes.
Cinnamon: Cinnamon is a spice that is made from the inner bark of the cinnamon tree. It has a warm, sweet, and slightly woody flavor, and is commonly used in baking, as well as in savory dishes like stews, curries, and spice blends.
Cioppino: Cioppino is a type of seafood stew that is traditionally made with a tomato-based broth, white wine, and a mixture of seafood, such as clams, shrimp, and fish. It is a staple of San Francisco’s Italian-American cuisine and is often served with crusty bread for dipping.
Clafoutis: Clafoutis is a type of French dessert that is made with a batter that is poured over fresh fruit, typically cherries, and then baked until puffed and golden. It has a custardy texture and a sweet, fruit-filled flavor, and is often served warm with a dusting of powdered sugar.
Clam Bake: A clam bake is a type of outdoor cooking event in which clams, along with other seafood and vegetables, are steamed together in a large pot over hot coals or wood. The clams and other ingredients are seasoned with herbs and spices and are served in their shells as a communal meal.
Clam Chowder: Clam chowder is a type of soup that is made with clams, potatoes, onions, and a creamy or brothy base. It is a staple of New England cuisine and is often served with crackers or crusty bread.
Clarified: To clarify in cooking terms refers to the process of removing solids from a liquid, such as butter or stock, to create a clear, pure liquid that can be used as a base for sauces and soups.
Cloves: Cloves are the dried, unopened flower buds of the clove tree. They have a warm, sweet, and slightly bitter flavor, and are commonly used in baking, as well as in savory dishes like spice blends and marinades.
Club Sandwich: A club sandwich is a type of sandwich that consists of slices of cooked turkey, bacon, lettuce, tomato, and mayonnaise, layered between three slices of toast. It is a classic sandwich that is often served in American diners and cafes.
Coarse: Coarse in cooking terms refers to a rough, uneven texture, typically referring to the grinding of spices, salt, or sugar to a larger particle size, or to a type of chop in vegetables or meats.
Coat refers to a layer or covering of something, typically a thin layer of something spread or brushed over a surface.
Cobb Salad is a type of salad that originated in the United States, made with chopped lettuce, grilled chicken, bacon, avocado, hard-boiled eggs, tomato, and blue cheese.
Coconut oil is a type of oil made from the meat of mature coconuts. It is used in cooking and baking and is known for its mild flavor and high smoke point.
Coleslaw is a type of salad made with finely chopped raw cabbage and other vegetables such as carrots, dressed with vinegar or mayonnaise-based sauce.
Comminute means to cut into small pieces, either by chopping or grinding.
Confection refers to a sweet treat or dessert, typically made with sugar and other sweet ingredients.
Confit is a French cooking method in which food, typically meat, is slow-cooked in its own fat and then preserved in the same fat.
Confit de canard is a French dish made with a duck that has been cooked in its own fat.
Congeal means to cause a liquid to become solid or semisolid.
Congee is a type of rice porridge that is popular in many Asian countries.
Consommé is a clear, flavorful broth made by simmering meat, vegetables, and seasonings, then clarifying the liquid by straining out the solids.
Cook refers to the process of preparing food by heating it, either on a stovetop, in an oven, or over a fire. Cooking transforms raw ingredients into a finished dish.
Coq au vin is a French dish made with chicken braised in red wine, typically with vegetables and bacon.
Core refers to the central part of a fruit, vegetable, or nut, usually containing seeds.
Coriander refers to the leaves and stems of the coriander plant, also known as cilantro, used as a herb in cooking.
Corn oil is a type of oil made from the seeds of the corn plant. It is commonly used in cooking, baking, and as a salad dressing.
Corn on the Cob refers to a cob of corn that has been cooked and served as a whole, typically as a side dish.
Cornbread is a type of bread made from a mixture of cornmeal and flour, typically baked in a skillet or muffin tin.
Coulis is a thin, smooth sauce made from pureed fruit or vegetables, typically used as a topping or garnish for desserts.
Coulommiers is a type of French cheese, similar to Brie, made from cow’s milk.
Couscous is a type of North African pasta made from semolina flour and water, often used in savory dishes with vegetables, meats, or spices.
Crab Bisque is a type of creamy soup made with crab meat and shells, along with vegetables and seasonings.
Crab Cakes are patties made from crab meat and bread crumbs, typically fried or baked, and served as an appetizer or main dish.
Crab Cakes Benedict is a variation of the classic eggs Benedict dish, featuring crab cakes in place of the traditional Canadian bacon or ham.
Crackers are a type of snack food made from a simple mixture of flour, water, and salt, often flavored with seasonings and baked until crispy.
Cranberries are a type of tart berry native to North America, often used in cooking for their tart flavor, especially in baked goods and sauces.
Cream refers to a dairy product made from the fatty part of milk, used in cooking and baking for its richness and texture.
Crème is a French term for cream, often used to refer to dessert dishes made with a creamy base, such as crème brûlée or crème anglaise.
Crème anglaise is a French custard sauce made from milk, sugar, and egg yolks, often used as a topping for desserts or as a base for ice cream.
Crème brûlée is a French dessert consisting of a custard base topped with a layer of caramelized sugar.
Crisp refers to a type of dessert made with a crunchy topping, often consisting of a mixture of sugar, butter, and oats or flour, baked over a fruit filling.
Croissant is a type of French pastry made with layers of flaky, buttery dough, often filled with chocolate or almond paste.
Croissants aux amandes are croissants filled with almond paste.
Croque-baguette is a French sandwich made with bread, cheese, and ham, often toasted until the cheese is melted.
Croque-Madame is a variation of the croque-baguette, topped with a fried egg.
Croque-monsieur is a French sandwich made with bread, cheese, and ham, often toasted until the cheese is melted.
Croque-provençale is a variation of the croque-monsieur, made with a tomato sauce and often with the addition of fresh herbs like basil or thyme.
Croquette is a small, cylindrical roll made from a mixture of mashed potatoes, meat, or cheese, breaded and fried until crispy.
Crudité refers to raw, sliced, or whole vegetables served as an appetizer, often served with a dip or sauce.
Crush refers to the act of crushing ingredients, such as crushing garlic or crushing crackers into crumbs.
Cubed refers to ingredients that have been cut into small, cube-shaped pieces.
Curdle refers to the process of coagulating a liquid mixture, such as when cream or milk begins to separate into solids and liquids.
Cured refers to food that has been treated with salt, sugar, or smoke to preserve and flavor it, such as cured meats like ham or bacon.
Curry refers to a type of dish that originated in India, typically made with spices and either vegetables or meat in a sauce.
Cutlet refers to a thin slice of meat, often breaded and fried, such as a pork or veal cutlet.
Deep-Dish Pizza: Deep-Dish Pizza is a type of pizza characterized by its deep, round pan and tall edges, often filled with a large number of toppings and a thicker, bread-like crust.
Deglaze: Deglaze refers to the process of adding liquid, such as wine or broth, to a pan in which food has been cooked, in order to dissolve the browned bits on the bottom of the pan and incorporate them into the sauce.
Demi-glace is a rich, flavorful sauce made from a reduction of brown stock (typically beef or veal) and a mixture of aromatics and seasonings.
Demi-glace de viande is the French term for a meat-based demi-glace, typically made from beef or veal stock.
Demi-sec is a term used to describe a type of sparkling wine or Champagne that is slightly sweeter than a brut style.
Devil refers to a style of preparing food, often eggs or seafood, that is seasoned with a mixture of spices and/or condiments and served with a sauce.
Deviled Eggs are hard-boiled eggs that have been halved and filled with a mixture of yolks, mayonnaise, mustard, and seasonings.
Diced refers to ingredients that have been cut into small, cube-shaped pieces.
Dill is an herb with a slightly bitter, aromatic flavor that is often used in dishes like pickles and sauces.
Dim sum refers to a type of Cantonese cuisine that involves small, bite-sized dishes served in steamer baskets, typically served with tea.
Dolma refers to a type of dish, originating in the Middle East, that involves stuffing vegetables (such as grape leaves or bell peppers) with a mixture of rice, spices, and sometimes meat.
Donburi is a Japanese dish consisting of rice served in a large bowl, topped with ingredients like meat, vegetables, and egg.
Donuts: Donuts are a type of sweet fried dough that is usually shaped into a ring or ball and is often coated with sugar or glaze. They can be filled with jelly, cream, or other sweet fillings.
Dredge: Dredging is a cooking technique that involves coating food in a dry ingredient, such as flour, breadcrumbs, or cornmeal, before cooking. This helps to create a crispy crust on the food and to retain its moisture during cooking.
Drizzle: Drizzling is a technique that involves slowly pouring a thin stream of a liquid, such as oil, syrup, or melted chocolate, over food. This is usually done as a finishing touch to add flavor and appearance to dishes.
Dust: Dusting is a technique that involves lightly coating food with a dry ingredient, such as cocoa powder, powdered sugar, or flour, before cooking. This is done to provide a layer of flavor or to help prevent the food from sticking.
Duxelle: Duxelle is a French term that refers to a mixture of finely chopped mushrooms, shallots, and herbs, usually sautéed in butter, that is used as a filling or garnish for various dishes. The mixture is often used to enhance the flavor of sauces, soups, and other dishes, and can be served hot or cold.
Eclair: An eclair is a French pastry made of a light, airy choux pastry filled with cream and topped with chocolate or frosting.
Eggs Benedict is a classic American breakfast dish made of English muffins topped with Canadian bacon, poached eggs, and hollandaise sauce.
Eggs Florentine is a variation of Eggs Benedict made with spinach instead of Canadian bacon.
Empanada is a type of pastry that is common in Latin American, Spanish, and Filipino cuisine. It is made of a pastry shell that is filled with various ingredients, such as meat, cheese, vegetables, or fruit, and then baked or fried until crispy.
Emulsification: Emulsification is the process of combining two or more immiscible liquids, such as oil and vinegar, to form a homogeneous mixture or emulsion. This is usually achieved by adding an emulsifying agent, such as mustard or egg yolks, or by mechanically mixing the liquids together.
Emulsify: To emulsify is to combine two or more immiscible liquids, such as oil and vinegar, to form a homogeneous mixture or emulsion. This can be done by adding an emulsifying agent, such as mustard or egg yolks, or by mechanically mixing the liquids together.
En croute: En croute is a French culinary term that means in a crust. It refers to a dish that is wrapped in pastry dough and baked. Examples of dishes en croute include beef Wellington and vol-au-vent.
En papillote: En papillote is a French culinary term that means “in parchment”. It refers to a method of cooking in which food is placed in a pouch, typically made of parchment paper, and baked in the oven. The food steams in its own juices, creating a flavorful and tender dish.
Encrusted: To encrust is to cover or coat food with a layer of another ingredient, such as breadcrumbs, herbs, or nuts. This is usually done to add flavor, and texture, or to create a crisp outer layer on the food.
Entrée: An entrée is a main course dish in a meal, typically served after the soup or salad course and before the dessert.
Entremet: An entremet is a French term that refers to a sweet or savory dish served between the main course and dessert in a formal meal. This can include fruit dishes, custards, or even small meat or fish dishes.
Escalope: An escalope is a thin, boneless slice of meat, such as veal, chicken, or pork, that has been pounded flat. This makes it tender and easier to cook, and it can be breaded, sautéed, or used in dishes such as Milanese.
Escalope de dinde: Escalope de dinde is a French term that means turkey escalope. This refers to a thin, boneless slice of turkey that has been pounded flat and is often breaded and sautéed.
Escalope de poulet: Escalope de poulet is a French term that means chicken escalope. This refers to a thin, boneless slice of chicken that has been pounded flat and is often breaded and sautéed.
Escalope de saumon: Escalope de saumon is a French term that means salmon escalope. This refers to a thin slice of salmon that has been cut from the fillet and is often used in dishes such as “salmon en croute”.
Escalope de saumon à la crème: Escalope de saumon à la crème is a French dish that consists of thin slices of salmon that are cooked in a creamy sauce. The sauce is typically made with white wine, heavy cream, and seasonings such as shallots, garlic, and herbs.
Escalope de veau: Escalope de veau is a French term that means veal escalope. This refers to a thin, boneless slice of veal that has been pounded flat and is often breaded and sautéed.
Escalope de veau à la crème: Escalope de veau à la crème is a French dish that consists of thin slices of veal that are cooked in a creamy sauce. The sauce is typically made with white wine, heavy cream, and seasonings such as shallots, garlic, and herbs.
Escalope milanaise: Escalope milanaise is a type of escalope that is breaded and pan-fried, and served with a lemon butter sauce. It is traditionally made with veal, but chicken or turkey can also be used.
Escargot: Escargot is a French term that refers to edible land snails. They are often served as a delicacy in French cuisine, usually cooked in garlic butter and served in their shells.
Escargot de Bourgogne: Escargot de Bourgogne is a specific type of escargot that is harvested in the Burgundy region of France. They are considered to be some of the best escargots in the world and are often served as a delicacy in French cuisine.
Escovitch: Escovitch is a traditional Jamaican dish that consists of fried fish that is marinated in a spicy vinegar sauce. The sauce is made with a mixture of vinegar, scotch bonnets, allspice, thyme, and other seasonings, and the fish is typically served with fried vegetables such as carrots and peppers.
Fajitas: Fajitas are a Tex-Mex dish that consists of strips of marinated skirt steak or chicken that are grilled and served with tortillas, salsa, and other toppings such as cheese, guacamole, and sour cream. The term fajita comes from the Spanish word faja, which means strip.
Falafel: Falafel is a Middle Eastern dish that consists of deep-fried balls of ground chickpeas or fava beans that are typically served in a pita bread with tahini sauce, lettuce, tomato, and other toppings.
Feta: Feta is a type of brined, crumbly cheese that is traditionally made from sheep’s milk or a combination of sheep’s and goat’s milk. It is a staple ingredient in Greek cuisine and is often used in salads, sandwiches, and other dishes.
Filet: Filet is a French term that refers to a boneless cut of meat, typically beef or fish. The filet is a tender cut that is often served as a main course in fine dining restaurants.
Filling: Filling is a term used to describe a substance that is used to fill a dish, such as a pastry, pie, or sandwich. Fillings can be made with ingredients such as fruit, cream, custard, meat, vegetables, and more.
Fish and Chips: Fish and chips is a traditional British dish that consists of battered and fried fish that is served with deep-fried chips (French fries). The dish is often served with malt vinegar and tartar sauce.
Flambé: Flambé is a French cooking term that refers to the process of igniting a sauce or other liquid with alcohol to add flavor and create a dramatic presentation. The term comes from the French word flamber, which means to flame.
Flan: Flan is a type of dessert that originated in Spain and is popular in Latin American cuisine. It is a smooth and creamy custard that is baked in a caramel sauce and usually served chilled.
Flank Steak: Flank steak is a cut of beef that is taken from the abdominal muscles of the cow. It is a flavorful cut of meat that is often used in dishes such as fajitas, stir-fry, and marinated grill dishes.
Flanken: Flanken is a type of cut of beef that is taken from the flank of the cow and consists of thin slices of meat that are cross-cut across the grain. This cut of beef is often used in dishes such as soups, stews, and braises.
Flatbread: Flatbread is a type of unleavened bread that is made from a simple mixture of flour, water, and salt. It is a staple food in many cultures and is used in a variety of dishes, such as wraps, sandwiches, and pizzas.
Flavor Enhancers: Flavor enhancers, including salt, acids, spices, and umami-rich ingredients, play a crucial role in elevating dishes and bringing out the best in your ingredients. Understanding the unique properties and applications of these enhancers allows chefs and home cooks to create harmonious and delicious dishes.
Fluff: Fluff is a term that is used to describe a light, airy, and fluffy texture, often used in reference to foods such as marshmallows, whipped cream, or meringue.
Focaccia: Focaccia is a type of Italian flatbread that is similar to a thick, soft, and slightly chewy pizza crust. It is often topped with olive oil and salt and may also be topped with other ingredients such as garlic or rosemary.
Foie gras: Foie gras is a luxury food product made from the liver of ducks or geese that have been specially fattened. It is a traditional French delicacy and is considered one of the highest quality and most expensive foods in the world.
Fold: Fold is a term used in cooking to describe the gentle mixing of ingredients by using a spatula to cut down through the mixture and lift it up, turning it over and repeating the process until the ingredients are fully incorporated.
Fondue: Fondue is a dish that consists of melted cheese or chocolate that is served in a communal pot, into which pieces of bread, fruit, or vegetables are dipped. The dish originated in Switzerland and is typically served as a starter or main dish.
French Dip Sandwich: The French Dip sandwich is a type of sandwich that consists of thinly sliced roast beef on a long roll that is typically dipped in a flavorful au jus sauce before eating. The sandwich is a popular menu item in the United States, especially in Southern California.
French Toast: French Toast is a type of sweet breakfast dish that consists of slices of bread that have been soaked in a mixture of eggs, milk, and spices, and then fried until golden brown. It is often served with syrup, butter, and powdered sugar.
Fricassee: Fricassee is a type of French dish that consists of meat that is cut into small pieces and cooked in a creamy sauce. The dish can be made with a variety of meats, including chicken, veal, and rabbit.
Fried Chicken: Fried chicken is a popular dish that consists of chicken pieces that have been seasoned, coated in flour, and deep-fried until crispy and golden brown. It is a staple of Southern cuisine in the United States and is often served with sides such as mashed potatoes, coleslaw, and biscuits.
Frisée: Frisée is a type of lettuce that is characterized by its curly, bitter leaves. It is commonly used in salads and as a garnish for dishes such as soups and sandwiches.
Frisée aux lardons: Frisée aux lardons is a traditional French dish that consists of frisée lettuce that is tossed with bacon and a warm vinaigrette dressing. It is often served as a starter or as a side dish.
Frittata: A frittata is an Italian dish that consists of eggs that are mixed with various ingredients, such as vegetables, cheese, and meats, and then cooked in a pan until set. The frittata is then finished under the broiler to create a browned and puffy top.
Fry: To fry is to cook food in hot oil. Frying can be used as a cooking method for a variety of foods, including meats, vegetables, and seafood.
Galantine: Galantine is a type of dish that consists of a deboned bird or other types of meat that is stuffed with a forcemeat and then cooked. The dish is often served cold and is often used as an appetizer or as a main dish for a formal dinner.
Galette: A galette is a type of French pastry that is made from a thin, flat, and round cake of pastry dough. It can be sweet or savory and is often filled with ingredients such as fruit, cheese, ham, and eggs.
Garlic: Garlic is a type of bulb vegetable that is widely used in cooking for its pungent and slightly sweet flavor. It is often used in savory dishes and is considered a staple in many cultures.
Gâteau: A gâteau is a type of French cake that is typically rich and fancy, often filled with cream, fruit, or other ingredients. Gâteaux can range in size from individual-sized desserts to large, multi-layered cakes.
Gazpacho: Gazpacho is a cold soup that originated in Andalusia, Spain. It is typically made with tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and bread, and is blended until smooth. Gazpacho is often served chilled and is a popular dish in the summer months.
Giblets: Giblets are the edible offal from poultry, such as the heart, liver, and gizzard, that are often used in making stocks, gravies, and other dishes. Giblets are typically packaged inside the cavity of a whole bird and are removed before cooking.
Ginger: Ginger is a root that is commonly used in cooking and is native to Southeast Asia. It has a pungent and slightly sweet flavor and is often used to add warmth and depth to dishes. Ginger is used in both sweet and savory dishes and can be used fresh, powdered, or as a juice.
Glaze: A glaze is a thin, glossy coating that is applied to food to give it a shiny appearance and to add flavor. Glazes can be made from a variety of ingredients, including sugar, fruit juice, and spices, and are often brushed onto baked goods or drizzled over roasted meats and vegetables.
Glazed: Glazed refers to food that has been coated with a glaze.
Gnocchi: Gnocchi are small, soft dumplings that are made from potatoes, semolina, or ricotta cheese. They are often served with sauces or melted butter and grated cheese.
Goulash: Goulash is a stew that originated in Hungary and is traditionally made with beef, onions, paprika, and other ingredients. Goulash can be served as a main dish or as a soup and is often served with bread or noodles.
Grate: To grate is to reduce food into small, thin pieces by using a grater or food processor. Grating is often used to prepare ingredients for dishes such as cheese, vegetables, and chocolate.
Grated: Grated refers to food that has been reduced into small, thin pieces using a grater or food processor.
Gratin: A gratin is a type of dish that is topped with breadcrumbs and/or cheese and then baked or broiled until golden brown and crispy. Gratins can be made with a variety of ingredients, including vegetables, potatoes, and seafood.
Gratin dauphinois: Gratin dauphinois is a classic French dish that consists of sliced potatoes that are baked in a creamy sauce and topped with cheese.
Gratin de brocolis: Gratin de brocolis is a dish that consists of broccoli that is cooked and then baked with a cheese or breadcrumb topping.
Gratin de chou: Gratin de chou is a dish that consists of cabbage that is cooked and then baked with a cheese or breadcrumb topping.
Gratin de chou-fleur: Gratin de chou-fleur is a dish that consists of cauliflower that is cooked and then baked with a cheese or breadcrumb topping.
Gratin de coquillettes: Gratin de coquillettes is a dish made from short pasta shapes, typically elbow macaroni, mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de courgettes: Gratin de courgettes is a dish made from zucchini, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular side dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de haricots verts: Gratin de haricots verts is a dish made from green beans, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular side dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de macaroni: Gratin de macaroni is a dish made from macaroni pasta, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de pâtes: Gratin de pâtes is a dish made from pasta, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de poisson: Gratin de poisson is a dish made from fish, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular dish in French cuisine.
Gratin de pommes de terre: Gratin de pommes de terre is a dish made from potatoes, typically mixed with a sauce and baked in the oven until golden and crispy. It is a popular side dish in French cuisine.
Gratiné: Gratiné refers to a dish that has been topped with breadcrumbs and cheese and then baked in the oven until golden and crispy. This technique is commonly used to add a crunchy and cheesy topping to dishes such as gratins.
Gravlax: Gravlax is a Scandinavian dish made from salmon that has been cured in a mixture of salt, sugar, and dill. The salmon is then sliced thin and served as an appetizer or a main dish.
Gremolata: Gremolata is a traditional Italian condiment made from lemon zest, garlic, and parsley. It is typically used to add flavor to dishes, especially those made with meat, poultry, or fish.
Grill refers to cooking food directly over hot coals or a gas flame. Grilled refers to food that has been cooked in this manner.
Grilled Cheese Sandwich is a classic American dish that consists of melted cheese between two slices of bread that have been grilled until crispy and golden.
Grilled Ham and Cheese is a sandwich made by grilling ham and cheese together between two slices of bread.
Gumbo is a traditional stew that originated in Louisiana and is typically made with a mixture of meats, seafood, and vegetables in a flavorful roux-based sauce.
Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish made from sheep’s heart, liver, and lungs that are minced and mixed with oats, onion, and spices, then cooked inside the sheep’s stomach.
Halve means to divide into two equal parts.
Hamburgers: Hamburgers are a popular fast food dish made from ground beef that is shaped into a patty, grilled or fried, and served on a bun with various toppings.
Harissa: Harissa is a North African chili pepper paste that is used as a condiment and ingredient in various dishes.
Hash refers to a dish made from leftover ingredients that are diced and mixed together, usually with potatoes.
Hashbrowns are a type of hash that is made specifically with grated potatoes, fried until crispy on the outside and soft on the inside, and often served as breakfast food.
Herbs: Herbs refer to the leaves of aromatic plants that are used for flavoring and seasoning food.
Hoagie is a type of sandwich that originated in Philadelphia and is typically made with a long, crusty roll filled with meat, cheese, lettuce, tomato, and condiments.
Hollandaise: Hollandaise sauce is a rich, creamy sauce made from butter, egg yolks, lemon juice, and a pinch of salt.
Honey: Honey is a sweet, sticky substance produced by bees from nectar collected from flowers.
Hors d’oeuvre (also spelled hors d’oeuvre) is a small, bite-sized dish served before a meal as an appetizer.
Hot Dogs are a type of sausage that is typically served in a hot dog bun with various toppings.
Huevos rancheros is a Mexican dish consisting of eggs served on a tortilla and topped with spicy tomato sauce and cheese.
Hush Puppies: Hush Puppies are small, fried balls of cornmeal batter that are often served as a side dish in the Southern United States.
An ice Cream Sundae is a dessert that consists of ice cream topped with various toppings such as syrup, fruit, nuts, and whipped cream.
Infuse refers to the process of steeping or soaking ingredients in a liquid to extract the flavor and aroma.
Infused refers to ingredients that have been flavored or scented through the process of infusion.
Infusion is a liquid that has been flavored or scented by steeping or soaking ingredients in it.
Jalapeno Poppers are jalapeno peppers that have been stuffed with cheese and/or meat, breaded, and fried until crispy.
Jambalaya is a Cajun and Creole dish that consists of rice cooked with meat (such as chicken or sausage), seafood, and vegetables.
Jambon is the French word for ham.
Joue is a French term for cheek meat, usually from a pig.
Julienne refers to a cooking technique where ingredients are cut into thin, matchstick-sized pieces.
Jus is the French word for juice, and it also refers to a type of sauce made from the natural juices of meat that have been thinned and flavored.
Karoo is a semi-arid region in South Africa known for its distinctive cuisine, which includes dishes made with lamb and mutton.
Kebab refers to a dish of marinated meat (such as chicken, beef, or lamb) that is grilled on a skewer and served with various accompaniments.
Ketchup: Ketchup is a sweet and tangy condiment made from tomatoes, vinegar, sugar, and spices.
Key Lime Pie: A sweet, tart dessert pie made with Key Lime juice, sweetened condensed milk, and egg yolks, typically served with a graham cracker crust.
Kielbasa: A type of sausage originating from Poland, made from beef, pork, or a mixture of both, and flavored with garlic, pimento, and other spices.
Knead: The process of working dough with your hands to develop the gluten, making it smoother and more elastic.
Knob: A small handle or projection on a piece of cookware, used for easier handling and maneuvering.
Kofta: A Middle Eastern dish made of minced meat (usually beef, lamb, or chicken), mixed with spices, and shaped into balls or oblong shapes, then grilled, fried, or baked.
Kringle: A Danish pastry made of flaky, layered dough shaped into an oval, filled with various sweet fillings such as fruit or nut, and topped with icing or frosting.
Kulfi: A popular Indian frozen dessert made from milk, sugar, and flavorings, typically cardamom, saffron, or pistachio.
Larding: The process of inserting thin strips of fat into meat, such as pork or beef, to add moisture and flavor during cooking.
Lardons: Small pieces of bacon, usually diced, used as a flavoring ingredient in dishes such as salads, quiches, and potatoes.
Lasagna: A dish made of layers of pasta, sauce, cheese, and various fillings, typically meat or vegetables.
Lassi: A popular yogurt-based drink from India, typically flavored with sugar, spices, and fruit, and served chilled.
Lavender: A fragrant herb with purple or blue flowers, often used in cooking to add a floral and slightly sweet flavor to dishes, as well as in teas and perfumes.
Leaven: A substance, such as yeast or baking powder, used to cause dough or batter to rise.
Leavening: The act of making the dough rise with the addition of a leavening agent, such as yeast or baking powder.
Leek: A vegetable that is similar in taste to onion but with a sweeter, milder flavor.
Leeks: A type of allium vegetable, which includes onions, garlic, and scallions, that is used in cooking to add flavor to various dishes.
Lemon: A type of citrus fruit with a tart and acidic flavor, used to add flavor to many sweet and savory dishes, as well as in drinks and desserts.
Lemon zest: The thin, outermost part of a lemon peel that contains the essential oils and flavor of the lemon.
Linguine: A type of pasta that is thin and flat, similar to spaghetti but slightly wider.
Lo mein: A Chinese dish made with stir-fried noodles, vegetables, and meat or seafood.
Lobster Bisque: A creamy soup made with lobster, cognac, and heavy cream.
Lobster Roll: A type of sandwich made with lobster meat, mayonnaise, and sometimes lemon juice and spices, served on a hot dog roll.
Loin: A cut of meat from the back of an animal, often used for roasts or other dishes that require a tender cut.
Macaron: A small, round French pastry made with almond flour, sugar, and egg whites, filled with buttercream, ganache, or fruit jam.
Macaroni and Cheese: A popular American dish made with elbow macaroni pasta and a cheese sauce, often baked until crispy.
Macaroon: A small, round cookie made with ground almonds, sugar, and egg whites, often flavored with coconut or almond extract.
Macédoine: A mixture of diced or small pieces of fruits or vegetables, often served as a side dish or used as a garnish.
Manhattan Clam Chowder: A type of clam chowder made with tomatoes and spices, originating from New York City.
Manicotti: Large, tube-shaped pasta that is typically stuffed with cheese or meat filling, then baked with sauce.
Marbled: A term used to describe meat that has visible streaks of fat throughout, indicating that it is tender and flavorful.
Margarita: A popular cocktail made with tequila, lime juice, and triple sec or another type of orange liqueur, served over ice with a salt rim.
Marinate: To soak food, such as meat, poultry, or vegetables, in a flavorful liquid mixture, usually for several hours or overnight, in order to enhance the flavor and tenderize the food.
Marzipan: Marzipan is a sweet, almond-based confectionery dough made from almonds, sugar, and egg whites. It is used as a filling for cakes, pastries, and other sweets, and can also be shaped into various forms and colors for decorative purposes.
Mashed: Mashed refers to food that has been mashed or pureed into a smooth, creamy consistency. This can be done using a variety of methods, such as using a fork, a potato masher, or a food processor. Common foods that are mashed include potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and beans.
Matzo: Matzo, also known as matzah or matza, is a type of unleavened bread that is traditionally eaten during the Jewish holiday of Passover. It is made from simple ingredients including flour and water, and is typically baked quickly to prevent the dough from rising.
Matzo ball: A matzo ball is a round dumpling made from matzo meal, eggs, oil, and water. It is often served in chicken soup, and is a staple of Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine.
Meatball Sub: A meatball sub is a sandwich made with meatballs, marinara sauce, and melted cheese, typically served on a long roll or baguette.
Meatloaf: Meatloaf is a baked dish made from ground meat (usually beef, pork, or a combination), breadcrumbs, eggs, and seasonings. It is often served as a main dish, and can be served hot or cold.
Meringue: Meringue is a light and airy mixture of egg whites and sugar that is beaten until stiff peaks form. It is used as a topping for pies, as a component of certain desserts (such as pavlova), and can also be baked to create meringue cookies.
Mignon: Mignon is a French term that refers to a small, tender cut of beef, typically from the filet mignon steak. It is often grilled or pan-fried and served as a main dish, often with a sauce or seasoning.
Milkshake: A milkshake is a sweet, cold drink made from milk, ice cream, and flavorings such as fruit, syrup, or chocolate. It is often topped with whipped cream and a cherry.
Mille-feuille: The mille-feuille, also known as the Napoleons, is a French pastry made from layers of puff pastry, custard, and icing or powdered sugar.
Mince: To mince is to chop food into very small pieces, often using a knife or a food processor. The size of the pieces can range from a coarse chop to a fine puree, depending on the desired texture and use of the minced food.
Mint: Mint is a fragrant herb that is widely used in cooking and in making various beverages, such as mint tea or mint juleps. It has a distinctive, fresh flavor and is often used to add a touch of brightness to dishes such as salads, sauces, and desserts.
Mirepoix: Mirepoix is a mixture of chopped vegetables, typically onions, carrots, and celery, that is used as a base for many soups, stews, and sauces. It is slowly cooked in fat to release its flavors and form the foundation of the dish.
Miso: Miso is a type of fermented paste made from soybeans, salt, and sometimes other ingredients such as rice or barley. It is commonly used in Japanese cuisine as a base for soups, sauces, and marinades.
Mix: Mix can refer to the act of combining ingredients, either by hand or with a mixer, until they are thoroughly blended. It can also refer to a pre-made mixture of ingredients, such as a cake mix.
Monté: Monté is a French culinary term that refers to the process of browning butter in a pan until it turns a nutty brown color. This process is used to enhance the flavor of the butter and to create the base for various sauces, such as beurre monté.
Mornay: Mornay is a type of sauce made from a béchamel base, with the addition of grated cheese, such as Gruyere or Parmesan. It is often used as a topping for dishes such as gratins, or as a sauce for pasta.
Morue: Morue is a French word for salt cod, which is dried and salted cod fish that is a staple in many cuisines, especially in the Mediterranean. It is often soaked overnight to remove some of the salt before being used in dishes such as brandade or fritters.
Moussaka: Moussaka is a traditional dish of Greek cuisine that consists of layers of eggplant, ground meat, and a creamy béchamel sauce, all baked together in the oven.
Mousse: Mousse is a light and fluffy dessert made from a mixture of whipped cream and a flavored base, such as chocolate, fruit, or coffee. It is typically chilled until firm and then served as a sweet, creamy treat.
Mousseline: Mousseline is a light and airy sauce made from a hollandaise base that has been lightened with whipped cream. It is often used as a finishing sauce for dishes such as fish or vegetables.
Muffin: A muffin is a type of quick bread that is typically baked in a muffin tin and is often sweetened with ingredients such as sugar, fruit, or chocolate. Muffins can be served for breakfast, as a snack, or as a dessert.
Mussels: Mussels are a type of edible mollusk that are often steamed or boiled and served as a seafood dish. They are high in protein and have a distinctive, briny flavor that is popular in dishes such as moules marinières and mussel chowder.
Mustard: Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of the mustard plant. It is typically used to add flavor and tang to sandwiches, meats, and various sauces. There are many different types of mustard, including yellow, dijon, and whole grain.
Naan: Naan is a type of leavened, oven-baked flatbread that is popular in India and other South Asian countries. It is typically served as an accompaniment to curry and other stews.
Nacho: Nacho is a snack food made from tortilla chips topped with melted cheese and various toppings, such as jalapenos, salsa, and sour cream. It is often served as a party food or as a starter in Mexican cuisine.
Nage: A nage is a type of poaching or poaching liquid used in French cuisine to add moisture and flavor to dishes such as seafood, vegetables, or meats.
Nappé: Nappé is a culinary term that refers to a sauce that is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon.
New England Clam Chowder: New England Clam Chowder is a type of thick and creamy soup made from clams, potatoes, onions, and milk or cream. It is a staple of New England cuisine and is often served with crackers or crusty bread.
Noisette: Noisette is a culinary term that refers to a small round of meat, typically lamb or veal, that has been browned and then roasted.
Noodle: A noodle is a type of pasta that is made from flour, water, and eggs and can be served in a variety of dishes, such as soups, stir-fries, and casseroles.
Nougat: Nougat is a type of confection made from sugar, honey, and egg whites, with added ingredients such as nuts, dried fruit, or chocolate. It is often used as a filling in candy bars or as a sweet treat on its own.
Oatmeal: Oatmeal is a type of cereal made from whole oats that have been steamed and then rolled. It is often cooked with milk or water and served as a hot cereal for breakfast, or used in baked goods such as cookies or bread.
Oeuf: Oeuf is the French word for egg.
Oignon: Oignon is the French word for onion.
Omelet: An omelet is a dish made by beating eggs and cooking them in a pan, often with added ingredients such as cheese, vegetables, or meats. The eggs are folded over the fillings to form a folded, filled egg dish.
Onigiri: Onigiri is a type of Japanese rice ball that is filled with various ingredients, such as seafood, pickled vegetables, or soy sauce. It is often wrapped in nori seaweed and is a popular snack or light meal.
Onion: Onions are a versatile and flavorful vegetable that are widely used in cooking around the world. They can be eaten raw or cooked, and are known for their distinctive aroma and pungent flavor.
Oregano: Oregano is a herb that is commonly used in Mediterranean and Mexican cuisine. It has a strong, pungent flavor and is often used to season meat, tomato-based dishes, and various sauces.
Oven-bake: Oven-baking is a cooking method in which food is cooked in an oven. This method is often used to bake casseroles, roasted meats and vegetables, and various baked goods.
Oxtail: Oxtail is a cut of meat taken from the tail of a cow. It is often slow-cooked in stews or soups to break down the collagen and produce a tender, flavorful dish.
Pad Thai: Pad Thai is a popular Thai dish made with stir-fried rice noodles, vegetables, eggs, and a sauce made from tamarind, fish sauce, and sugar. It is often topped with peanuts, cilantro, and lime wedges.
Paella: Paella is a Spanish dish made with rice, saffron, and a variety of ingredients, such as seafood, chicken, and vegetables. It is typically cooked in a large, shallow pan and is a staple dish in Valencia, Spain.
Pain aux Raisins: Pain aux Raisins is a type of French pastry that is similar to a croissant but filled with a sweet filling made from raisins and sugar. It is often served as a breakfast or dessert item.
Pain Complet: Pain Complet is a type of French whole wheat bread that is made from a mixture of whole wheat flour and white flour. It is denser and nuttier than white bread and is a staple of the French diet.
Pain de Campagne: Pain de Campagne is a type of French country bread that is made from a mixture of flour, yeast, water, and salt. It is characterized by its dense, chewy texture and slightly tangy flavor.
Pain Perdu: Pain Perdu is a French dish that is similar to French toast. It is made by soaking slices of stale bread in a mixture of eggs, milk, sugar, and vanilla, then frying them until golden brown.
Pan Fry: Pan frying is a cooking method in which food is cooked in a shallow pan over medium to high heat, using a small amount of oil or fat. This method is often used for cooking meats, vegetables, and other foods that need to be browned on the outside.
Panade: A panade is a mixture of bread and liquid, typically milk or stock, that is used to bind ingredients together in various dishes, such as meatloaf or stuffing.
Pancake: A pancake is a flat, round cake that is made from a batter of flour, eggs, milk, and baking powder, and cooked on a griddle or in a frying pan. Pancakes can be served sweet or savory and are often topped with syrup, butter, and/or fruit.
Paprika: Paprika is a spice made from the dried and ground fruits of the Capsicum annuum plant. It is commonly used in a variety of dishes, such as soups, stews, sauces, and marinades, to add flavor and color.
Parboil: Parboiling is a cooking method in which food is partially boiled in water or another liquid until it is partially cooked. This method is often used to prepare foods for further cooking methods, such as grilling or roasting.
Parfait: A parfait is a French dessert that is made by layering fruit, yogurt, granola, and/or other ingredients in a tall glass. Parfaits are typically served chilled and are often garnished with whipped cream and a drizzle of syrup.
Parsley: Parsley is an herb that is widely used in cooking to add flavor and color to a variety of dishes. It has a fresh, slightly bitter taste and is often used as a garnish or to make sauces and dressings.
Pasta: Pasta is a staple food made from dough made from durum wheat semolina and water. It comes in many different shapes and sizes and is often served with a variety of sauces or fillings.
Pastrami: Pastrami is a popular deli meat that is made from beef, usually the brisket cut, that has been brined, seasoned with herbs and spices, and smoked.
Pâté: Pâté is a type of French spread or terrine made from ground meat, liver, or vegetables mixed with fat, seasonings, and sometimes alcohol. It is usually served chilled, either on its own or as a component of a larger dish.
Pâte à Choux: Pâte à Choux is a type of light and fluffy dough that is used to make various French pastries, such as éclairs and profiteroles. It is made from flour, butter, water, and eggs and is typically piped into shapes and baked until crisp and golden.
Pâte Brisée: Pâte Brisée is a type of French pastry dough that is used for savory tarts and pies. It is made from flour, salt, butter, and water and is known for its flaky and tender texture.
Pâtes: Pâtes is the French word for pasta, which is a staple food made from dough made from durum wheat semolina and water. It comes in many different shapes and sizes and is often served with a variety of sauces or fillings.
Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich: A peanut butter and jelly sandwich is a classic American sandwich made by spreading peanut butter and jelly on two slices of bread. It is a popular lunchtime food, especially among children.
Pecan Pie: Pecan pie is a sweet pie made from a mixture of corn syrup, sugar, eggs, butter, and pecan nuts, baked in a pastry crust. It is a traditional dessert in the Southern United States and is often served during holidays and special occasions.
Pepper: Pepper is a spice that is made from the dried and ground fruit of the Piper nigrum plant. It is used to add flavor and heat to a wide variety of dishes, from soups and stews to sauces and marinades.
Pepperoni Pizza: Pepperoni pizza is a type of pizza that is topped with tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese, and slices of pepperoni sausage. It is one of the most popular types of pizza in the United States.
Persillade: Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and parsley that is used as a flavoring in many French dishes, such as grilled meats, vegetables, and fish.
Pesto: Pesto is a type of sauce made from basil, garlic, pine nuts, Parmesan cheese, and olive oil. It is typically used to flavor pasta, but can also be used as a spread or condiment for sandwiches and other dishes.
Philly Cheesesteak: The Philly cheesesteak is a type of sandwich that is made from thin slices of grilled beef, melted cheese, and various toppings, and served on a long, crusty roll. It is a popular dish in the Philadelphia area and is often considered a regional specialty.
Pho: Pho is a Vietnamese noodle soup that is made with a broth of beef or chicken, rice noodles, and a variety of herbs and spices. It is a staple of Vietnamese cuisine and is often served as a main dish.
Pickle: A pickle is a food that has been preserved in a solution of vinegar or brine. Pickles can be made from a variety of vegetables, such as cucumbers, and are often served as a snack or as a condiment.
Pierogi: Pierogi are a type of dumpling that originated in Poland. They are typically filled with ingredients such as potato, cheese, or meat, and are boiled or fried before serving.
Pinched: To pinch means to squeeze or grip a small amount of food or dough between your fingers. This technique is often used in cooking to shape dough or to remove a small portion of a food item.
Piping: Piping refers to the process of transferring a liquid or soft food, such as frosting or mashed potatoes, into a pastry bag fitted with a decorative tip. The food is then squeezed out of the bag to form a specific shape or pattern.
Pissaladière: Pissaladière is a type of French pizza that is made with a thin bread-like crust, topped with caramelized onions, anchovies, and black olives.
Pithivier: Pithivier is a type of French pastry that is made by baking a disk of puff pastry with a filling of almond cream or fruit. It is often served as a sweet dessert.
Poach: To poach means to gently simmer food, such as eggs or fish, in a liquid that is just below the boiling point. The liquid helps to cook the food gently and also adds flavor.
Polenta: Polenta is a dish made from boiled cornmeal that is often served as a side dish or used as a base for other dishes. It can be served hot and creamy or chilled and sliced, and then fried or grilled.
Pomegranate: Pomegranate is a type of fruit that is native to the Middle East. It has a tough outer layer and is filled with small, juicy seeds that are surrounded by a tart, flavorful pulp.
Popcorn: Popcorn is a type of snack food that is made by heating dried corn kernels until they pop and expand into light, fluffy pieces. It is often served as a snack and can be flavored with a variety of seasonings.
Porridge: Porridge is a type of hot cereal that is made by cooking oatmeal or another grain in water or milk until it becomes thick and creamy. Porridge can be served plain or flavored with sweeteners, fruits, or spices.
Pot-au-feu: Pot-au-feu is a traditional French beef stew that is made with beef, vegetables, and seasonings. It is typically served as a main dish and is a staple of French cuisine.
Pot-au-feu à la Bourgeoise: This is a variation of the traditional Pot-au-feu that is made with more luxurious ingredients such as veal and poultry, along with beef and vegetables.
Pot-au-feu à la Bourguignonne: This version of Pot-au-feu originates from the Burgundy region of France and includes ingredients such as beef, red wine, and mushrooms.
Pot-au-feu à la Mode: This variation of Pot-au-feu is made with beef that has been marinated in red wine, along with vegetables and seasonings.
Pot-au-feu à la Parisienne: This is a variation of Pot-au-feu that is made with beef, carrots, onions, and leeks.
Potage: Potage is a type of soup that is made from pureed vegetables or fruits, along with seasonings and sometimes cream or milk.
Potato Chips: Potato chips are thin slices of potato that have been fried or baked until crispy. They are a popular snack food and are often served as a side dish with meals.
Potato Salad: A potato salad is a dish made from boiled potatoes that are mixed with ingredients such as mayonnaise, mustard, onions, and sometimes eggs and pickles.
Potée: Potée is a type of stew that originated in France. It is made with meat, vegetables, and legumes, and is typically simmered for a long time to develop its flavor.
Pretzels: Pretzels are a type of snack food that originated in Germany. They are made from dough that is shaped into a twisted knot and then baked until crispy.
Prime Rib: Prime rib is a cut of beef that comes from the rib section of the animal. It is prized for its tenderness and rich flavor and is often served as a main dish on special occasions.
Pulled Pork Sandwich: A pulled pork sandwich is a sandwich made from slow-cooked pork that has been shredded and served on a roll or bun. It is typically seasoned with barbecue sauce.
Pumpkin Pie: Pumpkin pie is a type of dessert pie that is made with a filling made from pumpkin puree, spices, and sweetener, and is baked in a pastry crust.
Purée: Purée is a type of food that has been pureed to a smooth consistency, either by using a food processor or by mashing it with a fork or potato masher. Puréed foods are often used as a base for soups and sauces.
Quenelle – A dumpling made from a mixture of ingredients such as fish, meat, or vegetables that is usually poached or baked.
Quenelle de Brochet – A French dish made from pike dumplings in a creamy sauce.
Quesadilla – A Mexican dish made with a tortilla filled with cheese and other ingredients such as vegetables, meat, or spices.
Quiche – A savory custard tart filled with ingredients such as cheese, vegetables, and meat, baked in a pastry crust.
Quiche Lorraine – A traditional French quiche filled with bacon, onions, and Gruyère cheese.
Quinoa: Quinoa is a grain-like seed that is considered a superfood, often used as a substitute for rice or other grains in many dishes.
Ragoût – A hearty stew made with meat and vegetables, typically simmered for a long time to develop its rich flavor.
Ramen – A Japanese dish made with Chinese-style wheat noodles served in a meat or fish-based broth, often flavored with soy sauce or miso, and topped with ingredients such as sliced pork, dried seaweed, and green onions.
Ratatouille – A traditional French stew made from a mixture of vegetables, such as eggplant, zucchini, bell peppers, and tomatoes, simmered in olive oil and flavored with herbs.
Ratatouille Niçoise – A variation of ratatouille made with vegetables and spices typical of the Nice region of France.
Ravioli – A type of pasta filled with a mixture of ingredients such as cheese, meat, or vegetables.
Red Velvet Cake – A popular American cake that is traditionally a bright red or deep red color, with a light and fluffy texture, and a distinct cocoa flavor, typically topped with a cream cheese frosting.
Reduce – To cook a liquid, such as stock or wine, over low heat until the volume is reduced and the flavors are concentrated.
Reduced – The result of reducing a liquid.
Reduction – A concentrated sauce or liquid resulting from reducing a larger amount of liquid.
Refrigerate – To cool or chill food or drinks to a temperature below room temperature, usually between 33°F and 40°F, by placing them in a refrigerator.
Remoulade – A cold sauce typically made with mayonnaise, lemon juice, mustard, and herbs, commonly used as a condiment or dip in French and Creole cuisine.
Render – To cook down, usually by simmering, animal fat, such as bacon, to extract the melted fat and crisp up the solids, or to convert tough cuts of meat into tender, flavorful pieces by cooking slowly over low heat.
Reuben Sandwich – A popular American sandwich made with corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Thousand Island dressing, all stacked between two slices of rye bread and grilled until hot and melted.
Rib-Eye Steak – A cut of beef that comes from the rib section of the cow and is prized for its tenderness and rich, beefy flavor.
Rice – A staple food crop that is a type of grain, typically grown in tropical regions and widely consumed as a staple food in many countries around the world.
Rice and Beans – A dish that is popular in many cultures, often consisting of cooked rice served with cooked beans, often flavored with spices, herbs, or meat.
Risotto – A classic Italian dish made from Arborio rice cooked in a flavorful broth, wine, or stock, and finished with cheese, butter, and sometimes other ingredients such as vegetables or meat.
Roast refers to cooking meat or vegetables in an oven, usually with dry heat, until it is tender and browned.
Rolls can refer to small, round bread rolls or to the act of rolling dough into a cylinder shape.
Rosemary is an herb commonly used in cooking for its fragrant, woody flavor and aroma.
Rosti is a Swiss dish made from grated potatoes that are fried until crispy and golden brown.
Rôti de boeuf is a French term for roasted beef.
Rouged refers to food that has been seasoned or colored with paprika or another red spice.
Rouille is a garlicky mayonnaise-like sauce that is traditionally served with fish soup or bouillabaisse.
Roux is a mixture of melted fat and flour that is used as a thickener in sauces and gravies.
Rub refers to a mixture of spices and herbs that is rubbed onto the surface of meat, poultry, or fish before cooking to add flavor.
S’more is a popular American dessert made from graham crackers, chocolate, and roasted marshmallows.
Sable is a type of French shortbread cookie that is usually made with butter, sugar, and flour.
Saffron: Saffron is a spice made from the stigmas of the saffron crocus, known for its intense flavor and vibrant yellow-orange color.
Sage: Sage is a fragrant, evergreen herb native to the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in cooking to add flavor to dishes, especially those made with poultry, pork, or stuffing.
Salmis: Salmis is a classic French dish made from game birds, such as pheasant or partridge, that have been roasted and then braised in a sauce made from the bird’s own juices, wine, and seasonings.
Salt: Salt is a common ingredient used in cooking to enhance the flavor of food. It is a naturally occurring mineral that is made up of sodium and chloride ions.
Sashimi: Sashimi is a Japanese dish made from raw fish that is typically sliced thin and served with soy sauce, wasabi, and pickled ginger.
Saucisson sec: Saucisson sec is a type of dry-cured sausage that is popular in French cuisine. It is typically made from pork, but can also be made from other meats like beef or wild game.
Sausage: Sausage is a type of food made from ground meat (such as pork, beef, or poultry) mixed with spices, seasonings, and other ingredients, and then typically encased in a sausage casing.
Sauté: To sauté means to cook food quickly in a small amount of hot fat, typically in a frying pan. The food is usually cut into small pieces and stirred or tossed frequently as it cooks.
Sauteed: Sauteed refers to food that has been cooked using the sauté method.
Scallop: A scallop is a type of mollusk with a round, two-part shell that is often used in cooking, especially in seafood dishes. Scallops can be grilled, baked, or sautéed, and they have a tender, slightly sweet flavor.
Scallopini: Scallopini is a type of dish made from thin slices of meat, typically veal, that are pounded thin and then breaded and fried.
Scallops: Scallops are a type of mollusk with a round, two-part shell that is often used in cooking, especially in seafood dishes. Scallops can be grilled, baked, or sautéed, and they have a tender, slightly sweet flavor.
Scones: Scones are a type of baked goods that are typically made with flour, sugar, baking powder, butter, and milk or cream. They are often served for breakfast or as a snack and can be served plain or with fruit, nuts, or other ingredients added.
Sear: To sear is to cook food, typically meat, on high heat for a short period of time in order to brown the surface and create a crust. Searing helps to lock in the flavor and moisture of the meat.
Season: To season is to add salt, pepper, or other spices to food in order to enhance its flavor. Seasoning can be done at various stages of cooking, from before cooking to just before serving.
Sesame oil: Sesame oil is an oil that is extracted from sesame seeds and is commonly used in cooking in Asian cuisine. It has a nutty, slightly bitter flavor and is often used in dressings, sauces, and marinades.
Shashlik: Shashlik is a type of kebab that originated in the Caucasus region and consists of marinated meat that is grilled on skewers. Shashlik can be made with beef, pork, chicken, or lamb and is often served with vegetables and bread.
Shepherd’s pie: Shepherd’s pie is a traditional British dish that consists of a layer of seasoned meat (typically lamb) and vegetables, topped with mashed potatoes and baked until golden and crispy.
Shrimp Cocktail: Shrimp cocktail is a dish that consists of cooked shrimp that is served with a sauce, typically a spicy cocktail sauce, for dipping. Shrimp cocktail is often served as an appetizer or as a light meal.
Shrimp Po’Boy Sandwich: A shrimp Po’ Boy sandwich is a traditional Louisiana sandwich that consists of fried shrimp that is served on a baguette or other type of bread, typically with lettuce, tomato, and mayonnaise.
Shrimp scampi: Shrimp scampi is a dish that consists of shrimp that is cooked in garlic, white wine, and butter sauce. Shrimp scampi is often served over pasta or with crusty bread for dipping into the sauce.
Sift: To sift is to pass dry ingredients, such as flour or sugar, through a fine-mesh sieve in order to remove any lumps and to aerate the ingredients. Sifting helps to make baked goods lighter and more uniform in texture.
Simmer: To simmer is to cook food in a liquid at a low temperature, just below the boiling point. Simmering is used to cook food gently and to allow flavors to develop.
Simmered: Simmered refers to food that has been cooked in a liquid at a low temperature, just below the boiling point. Simmering is used to cook food gently and to allow flavors to develop.
Skewered: Skewered refers to food that has been threaded onto a skewer, usually for grilling or roasting. Skewers can be made of metal, bamboo, or other materials, and are commonly used for grilling kebabs, satays, and other types of food.
Sliced: Sliced refers to food that has been cut into thin pieces, either by hand or with a knife or slicer. Sliced food is often used as a topping, filling, or garnish in various dishes.
Sloppy Joes: Sloppy Joes are a type of sandwich that is made with a sweet and tangy sauce and ground beef, typically served on a hamburger bun. The sauce is made from ketchup, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, and other seasonings, and is often simmered with ground beef to create a thick, flavorful filling.
Smoked: Smoked refers to food that has been exposed to smoke from burning wood or other materials, usually for the purpose of flavor and preservation. Smoked foods can be hot-smoked, where the food is fully cooked during the smoking process, or cold-smoked, where the food is not fully cooked and is instead flavored by the smoke.
Soft Shell Crabs: Soft Shell Crabs are a type of crab that is caught and eaten during a brief period when it has shed its hard exoskeleton and the new, soft shell has not yet hardened. Soft Shell Crabs are often fried or sautéed and served as a main course or appetizer.
Sole: Sole is a type of flatfish that is commonly found in saltwater environments. It is prized for its delicate flavor and tender texture and is often served as a main course, either sautéed, baked, or grilled.
Sole Meunière: Sole Meunière is a classic French dish that consists of sole fillets that are dredged in flour, sautéed in butter, and served with a simple sauce made from browned butter and lemon juice.
Sorbet: Sorbet is a type of frozen dessert that is made from a mixture of fruit juice or puree, sugar, and water. Unlike ice cream, sorbet does not contain dairy, making it a non-fat and refreshing alternative.
Soufflé: A soufflé is a type of baked dish that is made from a base of egg yolks, cheese, or fruit, and is lightened with beaten egg whites. The mixture is poured into a dish and then baked until puffed and golden, creating a light and airy texture.
Soupe à l’oignon: Soupe à l’oignon is a French onion soup that is made from caramelized onions, beef or chicken stock, white wine, and seasonings. It is typically served with a crouton or piece of bread that is topped with melted Gruyere cheese.
Soupe à l’oignon gratinée: Soupe à l’oignon gratinée is a variation of French onion soup that is topped with a crouton or piece of bread and melted Gruyere cheese. The dish is broiled until the cheese is melted and bubbly, giving it a crispy and golden crust.
Soupe aux truffes: Soupe aux truffes is a type of French soup that is made with black truffles, a type of edible fungus that is prized for its rich and earthy flavor. The soup is often made with chicken or beef broth, along with ingredients such as mushrooms, leeks, or onions. It is typically seasoned with herbs, salt, and pepper, and is served as a starter or light meal.
Soupe de Poisson: Soupe de poisson is a French dish that is made with fish, vegetables, and seasonings. It is a type of fish soup that is typically served as a main course.
Sous vide: Sous vide is a cooking method in which food is sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag and then cooked in a water bath at a precise temperature for an extended period of time. This method allows for precise control of the cooking temperature, resulting in evenly cooked food with a tender texture.
Southern Fried Catfish: Southern Fried Catfish is a dish that is commonly found in the Southern United States. It is made by coating catfish fillets in a seasoned cornmeal batter and then frying them until crispy.
Soybean oil: Soybean oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from soybeans. It is commonly used in cooking due to its neutral flavor and high smoke point.
Spaghetti: Spaghetti is a type of pasta that is made from semolina flour and water. It is long, thin, and cylindrical in shape, and is often served with tomato sauce, meat, or vegetables.
Spaghetti and Meatballs: Spaghetti and Meatballs is a classic Italian-American dish that consists of spaghetti pasta served with meatballs made from beef, pork, or a mixture of the two. The meatballs are often simmered in a tomato sauce and served over the pasta.
Spanakopita: Spanakopita is a Greek dish that is made from phyllo dough and filled with a mixture of spinach, feta cheese, onions, and herbs. It is often served as an appetizer or snack and can be baked or fried.
Spice: Spices are dried seeds, fruits, roots, or bark used to enhance the flavor, aroma, and color of food. They play a significant role in various global cuisines, adding depth and complexity to dishes while also providing numerous health benefits.
Steak Tartare: Steak Tartare is a dish that is made from raw, minced beef that is seasoned with various spices and condiments. It is often served with toast points, crackers, or raw vegetables.
Steak-Frites: Steak-frites is a French dish that consists of a grilled or pan-fried steak served with a side of fries. The steak is typically seasoned with salt and pepper and served with a sauce such as a béarnaise or a red wine reduction.
Steam: In cooking, steam is the hot and moist air that is produced when water boils. This method of cooking is often used for delicate foods, such as vegetables, fish, and dumplings, as it allows them to cook evenly without adding any fat.
Stew: A stew is a type of slow-cooked dish that is made by simmering meat, vegetables, and seasonings in a flavorful liquid. The ingredients are typically cooked until they are tender and the flavors have melded together.
Stir-fry: Stir-fry is a type of cooking that involves quickly frying small pieces of food in a hot pan or wok. The food is constantly stirred or tossed to ensure even cooking and to prevent burning. This method is often used in Chinese and other Asian cuisines to quickly cook meat and vegetables.
Stock: Stock is a flavorful liquid that is made by simmering bones, vegetables, and seasonings in water. It is used as a base for soups, stews, sauces, and gravies.
Strudel: Strudel is a type of pastry that is traditionally made in Central and Eastern Europe. It is made by layering thin sheets of pastry dough around a sweet or savory filling, which is then baked until golden brown.
Stuffed Pepper: A stuffed pepper is a dish in which a hollowed-out bell pepper is filled with a mixture of meat, rice, vegetables, and spices, and then baked in the oven.
Sukiyaki: Sukiyaki is a type of hot pot dish that originated in Japan. It typically consists of thinly sliced beef that is cooked with vegetables and other ingredients in a sweet and savory broth.
Sunflower oil: Sunflower oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the sunflower plant. It is commonly used in cooking and baking due to its light flavor and high smoke point.
Suprême: Suprême is a culinary term that refers to the tender and juicy white meat of a poultry bird, such as chicken or turkey, that is removed from the bone and served in slices.
Sushi: Sushi is a Japanese dish that typically consists of small pieces of raw or cooked fish, seafood, or vegetables that are served with rice and sometimes wrapped in seaweed.
Sweat: In cooking, to sweat means to cook food, usually vegetables, in a small amount of fat over low heat until they release their moisture and become tender. This technique is often used to add flavor to vegetables and to prepare them for use in other dishes.
Sweet Potato Pie: Sweet Potato Pie is a dessert dish that is typically made by baking a mixture of mashed sweet potatoes, sugar, eggs, milk, and spices in a pie crust. It is a popular dish in the Southern United States, particularly during the holiday season.
Tabbouleh: Tabbouleh is a Middle Eastern dish that is made from bulgur wheat, parsley, mint, tomatoes, onions, and lemon juice. It is typically served as a side dish or as a salad.
Tacos: Tacos are a popular Mexican dish that consists of a tortilla that is filled with various ingredients, such as meat, cheese, beans, vegetables, and sauces. They are often served with salsa and guacamole.
Tagine: A tagine is a type of slow-cooked stew that is popular in North African cuisine. It is named after the type of pot that it is cooked in, which is called a tagine. The tagine typically consists of meat, vegetables, and spices that are simmered slowly in a sauce.
Tamale: A tamale is a traditional Mexican dish made of masa (a dough made from corn) that is usually filled with meat, cheese, or other ingredients and wrapped in a corn husk before being steamed or boiled.
Tandoori: Tandoori is a style of cooking that originated in India and is named after the type of clay oven, called a tandoor, in which it is cooked. Tandoori dishes are typically marinated in a mixture of yogurt and spices before being grilled or roasted in the tandoor oven.
Tapas: Tapas are small plates of food that are typically served with drinks in bars and restaurants in Spain. They can be served hot or cold and can include dishes such as cured meats, cheeses, olives, and various other bite-sized snacks.
Tarte: A tarte (tart) is a type of pastry dessert that typically consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet or savory ingredients.
Tarte aux abricots: Tarte aux abricots is a French dessert that is made with an almond or pie crust filled with a sweet mixture of apricots, sugar, and sometimes almond paste.
Tarte aux cerises: Tarte aux cerises is a French cherry tart that consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet cherries and sometimes a sprinkle of sugar and almond paste.
Tarte aux fraises: Tarte aux fraises is a French strawberry tart that consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet strawberries and sometimes a sprinkle of sugar and whipped cream.
Tarte aux framboises: Tarte aux framboises is a French raspberry tart that consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet raspberries and sometimes a sprinkle of sugar and whipped cream.
Tarte aux noix: Tarte aux noix is a French tart that is made with a pastry crust filled with a mixture of chopped walnuts, sugar, and sometimes a little cream or eggs.
Tarte aux pêches: Tarte aux pêches is a French peach tart that consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet peaches and sometimes a sprinkle of sugar and whipped cream.
Tarte aux poires: Tarte aux poires is a French pear tart that consists of a pastry crust filled with sweet pears and sometimes a sprinkle of sugar and whipped cream.
Tarte aux pommes: Tarte aux pommes is a French dessert made with a pastry crust and a sweet apple filling. The apples are usually thinly sliced and arranged in a circular pattern on top of the pastry crust.
Tarte Tatin: Tarte Tatin is another French dessert that is made by caramelizing sliced apples in sugar and butter, and then covering the apples with a pastry crust. The tart is then baked in the oven and inverted onto a serving plate so that the caramelized apples are on top.
Tarts: Tarts are pastry desserts that typically have a pastry crust and a sweet filling. The filling can be made with fruit, custard, chocolate, or other ingredients.
Tater Tots: Tater Tots are small, cylindrical pieces of grated potato that are deep-fried until crispy. They are often served as a side dish in American cuisine.
Tempura: Tempura is a Japanese dish that consists of seafood or vegetables that have been battered and deep-fried. The batter is typically made with a mixture of flour, water, and egg.
Teriyaki: Teriyaki is a Japanese cooking technique in which food is grilled or broiled and brushed with a sweet soy sauce-based marinade. The marinade typically contains soy sauce, sugar, sake, and ginger.
Terrine: Terrine is a French dish that is similar to pâté. It is made by cooking meat, fish, or vegetables in a mold, and then refrigerating the dish until it is firm. The terrine can be served cold as an appetizer or main dish.
Tex-Mex Enchiladas: Tex-Mex enchiladas are a type of enchiladas that are popular in the southwestern United States. They are typically made with corn tortillas that are filled with a mixture of cheese, meat, and spices, and then topped with a chili sauce.
Thyme: Thyme is a culinary herb that is commonly used in cooking. It has a slightly pungent, earthy flavor and is used to season meat, fish, and vegetables.
Tikka: Tikka is a type of Indian cuisine that is made by marinating pieces of chicken, fish, or vegetables in a mixture of spices and yogurt, and then cooking the pieces on a skewer over hot coals or in a tandoor oven. The resulting dish is typically served with rice or bread.
Tiramisu: Tiramisu is a popular Italian dessert made with layers of ladyfingers soaked in espresso and coffee liqueur, layered with a mixture of mascarpone cheese, sugar, and eggs, and dusted with cocoa powder.
Toast: Toast is a type of food that is made by toasting bread in an oven, toaster, or over an open flame. Toast is often served as a breakfast food, and can be topped with butter, jam, honey, or other spreads.
Tostada: A tostada is a type of Mexican cuisine that consists of a crisp, deep-fried tortilla topped with a variety of ingredients, such as beans, cheese, lettuce, and salsa.
Truffle: A truffle is a type of edible fungus that grows underground near the roots of certain trees. It is highly prized for its rich, earthy flavor and is often used as a garnish or ingredient in high-end cuisine.
Tuna melt: A tuna melt is a type of sandwich that consists of tuna salad and cheese, typically American cheese, on bread, which is then toasted or grilled until the cheese is melted.
Turducken: A turducken is a type of stuffed poultry dish that consists of a deboned chicken stuffed inside a deboned duck, which is then stuffed inside a deboned turkey. It is a popular dish in the United States, especially for holiday gatherings.
Turkey Sandwich: A turkey sandwich is a type of sandwich that consists of sliced turkey, typically served on bread with condiments and toppings such as lettuce, tomato, cheese, and mayonnaise.
Udon: Udon is a type of thick, chewy noodle that is commonly used in Japanese cuisine. It is often served in soups or stir-fries and is known for its dense, toothsome texture.
Vanilla: Vanilla is a flavoring extracted from the seed pods of the vanilla orchid. It is a widely used ingredient in sweet dishes, such as ice cream, cakes, and baked goods, and is known for its sweet, warm flavor.
Vanilla Ice Cream: Vanilla ice cream is a popular flavor of ice cream that is made from cream, sugar, and vanilla extract. It is a classic flavor that is often used as a base for other ice cream flavors or as a topping for desserts, such as pie or cake.
Velouté: Velouté is a type of French sauce made from a blonde roux, chicken or fish stock, and cream. It is a smooth, velvety sauce that is used as a base for other sauces, such as mushroom or chicken and is often served with meats, poultry, and fish.
Vermicelli: Vermicelli is a type of thin, delicate pasta that is similar in shape to angel hair pasta. It is commonly used in Asian cuisines, such as in stir-fries or soups, and is known for its delicate texture and quick cooking time.
Vichyssoise: Vichyssoise is a cold, creamy soup made from potatoes, leeks, and cream. It is typically served chilled and is a popular soup for summertime.
Vinaigrette: Vinaigrette is a type of salad dressing made from oil, vinegar, and seasonings. It is a light, tangy dressing that is often used on green salads, coleslaws, and vegetables, and can be easily made at home using a simple recipe.
Vinegar: Vinegar is a sour-tasting liquid that is made by fermenting ethanol or other sugars. It is a common ingredient in cooking and is used in a variety of dishes, such as marinades, dressings, and pickling.
Wafer: A wafer is a thin, crisp, light cookie that is often used as a base for desserts, such as ice cream sandwiches, or as a snack on its own. It is typically made from flour, sugar, and butter and is often flavored with vanilla or chocolate.
Waffle: A waffle is a type of breakfast food that is made by cooking batter in a waffle iron. Waffles are characterized by their distinctive grid-like pattern and are typically served with syrup, butter, and fruit.
Wasabi: Wasabi is a spicy green paste that is commonly used in Japanese cuisine. It is often served with sushi or sashimi and is known for its strong, pungent flavor and heat.
Whisk: A whisk is a kitchen tool that is used to beat, whip, or stir ingredients. It is made up of a handle and a series of loops or wires and is used to mix ingredients together, incorporate air into a mixture, or create a frothy texture.
White Clam Pizza: White Clam Pizza is a type of pizza that is topped with fresh clams, garlic, olive oil, and sometimes Parmesan cheese. It is a popular variation of the classic pizza and is known for its rich, savory flavor.
Wings: Wings are a type of chicken that is typically fried or baked and served as a snack or as a main dish. They are often served with sauces or dips, such as barbecue sauce, hot sauce, or ranch dressing, and are a popular food at sporting events and gatherings.
Wonton: Wonton is a type of Chinese dumpling that is made from a thin wrapper filled with meat, vegetables, or other ingredients. Wontons are usually boiled or fried and served in soups, stir-fries, or as a standalone snack.
Xacuti: Xacuti is a traditional dish from the Indian state of Goa that is made with a mixture of spices, coconut, and chicken or seafood. It is a flavorful, aromatic dish that is typically served with rice.
Yaki: Yaki is a Japanese cooking technique that involves grilling or broiling food over high heat. The term can be used to describe dishes such as grilled chicken, beef, or vegetables that are cooked using this method.
Yogurt: Yogurt is a type of dairy product that is made by fermenting milk with bacterial cultures. It is a popular food that is known for its tangy, slightly sour flavor and its high levels of calcium and protein.
Yolk: The yolk is the yellow part of an egg that contains most of the egg’s fat and protein. It is surrounded by white, or albumen, and is a crucial component in many cooking and baking recipes.
Yuzu: Yuzu is a type of citrus fruit that is commonly used in Japanese and Korean cuisine. It has a unique, tart flavor that is often used to add a sour, refreshing taste to sauces, marinades, and drinks.
Zabaglione: Zabaglione is an Italian dessert that is made by whisking eggs, sugar, and Marsala wine together over low heat. It is a creamy, custard-like dessert that is often served with fruit or as a topping for cakes and pastries.
Zest: Zest is the thin, colorful outer layer of a citrus fruit’s rind. It is used to add flavor and aroma to dishes and can be grated or peeled from the fruit using a zester or a grater.
Ziti: Ziti is a type of pasta that is similar in shape to penne but is longer and thicker. It is a versatile pasta that is often used in baked dishes, such as ziti casseroles, or served with sauces or soups.
Zucchini: Zucchini is a type of summer squash that is known for its delicate, slightly sweet flavor and its tender, crispy texture. It is often used in savory dishes, such as soups, stews, and stir-fries, as well as in baked goods, such as zucchini bread.